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The view over a valley of a tiny village with thatched(草盖的)roof cottages around a church; a drive through a narrow village street lines with thatched cottages painted pink or white; the sight in parts of England.Most people will agree that the thatched roof is an essential part of the attraction of the English countryside.

  Thatching is in fact the oldest of all the building crafts practiced in the British Isles(英论诸岛). Although thatch has always been used for cottage and farm buildings, it was once used for castles and churches, too.  

  Thatching is a solitary(独自的)craft, which often runs in families. The craft of thatching as it is practiced toady has changed very little since the Middle Ages. Over 800 full-time thatchers are employed in England and Wales today, maintaining and renewing the old roofs as well as thatching newer houses. Manyproperty owners choose thatch not only for its beauty but because they know it will keep them cool in summer and warm in winter.

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  In fact, if we look at developing countries, over half the world lives under thatch, but they all do it in different ways. People in developing countries are often reluctant to go back to traditional materials and would prefer modern buildings. However, they may lack the money to allow them to import the necessary materials.Their temporary mud huts with thatched roofs of wild grasses often only last six months.Thatch which has been done the British way lasts from twenty to sixty years,, and is an effective defiance against the heatThe researcher organized an experimental tournament(锦标赛)involving four youth teams. Each match lasted an hour, divided into three periods of 20 minutes during which different referees were in charge.

Observers noted down the referees’ errors, of which there were 61 over the tournament. Converted to a standard match of 90 minutes, each referee made almost 23 mistakes, a remarkably high number.

The researcher then studied the videotapes to analyse the matches in detail. Surprisingly, he found that errors were more likely when the referees were close to the incident. When the officials got it right,, they were, on average, 17 meters away from the action. The average distance in the case of errors was 12 meters.[url=]replica watches, The research shows the optimum(最佳的)distance is about 20 meters.

There also seemed to be an optimum speed. Correct decisions came when the referees were moving at a speed of about 2 meters per second. The average speed for errors was 4 meters per second.


If FIFA, football’s international ruling body,wants to improve the standard of refereeing at the next World Cup, it should encourage referees to keep their eyes on the action from a distance, rather than rushing to keep up with the ball, the researcher argues.

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He also says that FIFA’s insistence that referees should retire at age 45 may be misguided. If keeping up with the action is not so important, their physical condition is less critical.

Thatching is a solitarycraft,

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